Abstract land topography. Yet they have managed to use

Abstract :

Water
is not an infinite resource. These days, water supply is a emergent concern for
cities with booming urban populations, especially in the large portions of the
country which are struggling with protracted drought, conservation as a means
to adapt to threat is in spotlight. Water conservation encompasses policies,
strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource, to
protect the water environment, to meet current and future human demand.
Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how much water
is used. Factors such as climate change
will increase pressures on natural water resources.

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In metropolitan city
like Pune, Residential development is rapidly growing vertically up in the form
of housing instead of individual apartment. The speed of the growth is at such
a speed that local authority is unable to complete the water requirement of
such housing areas for present water demand and conserving the water for future
generations.

This paper deals with the water supply related problem and water conservation
opportunities which can use to reduce water shortage problems in city suburb
areas having a Moderate climate.

Key Words:-
Water Conservation, Opportunities, City
suburb areas, Housing, Development, Moderate Climate.

1.  Introduction
:

Our survival depends on water. With the increase in
population growth and urbanization in the last few decades, the manifold
increase in demand for water is of great concern.

India
experiences either excess or scarce water because of varied rainfall and land
topography. Yet they have managed to use natural water resources efficiently by
integrating local water resources and technologies with community participation
Water availability is currently a matter of grave concern in India, especially
urban areas. It demands immediate attention from the government to safeguard
its sustainability for future generations.

Water conservation
encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource, to
protect the water environment, and to meet current and future human demand.
Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how much water
is used. Factors such as climate change
will increase pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation. (Mishra, 2013)

Hence
it is necessary to conserve the water without disturbing the present water
demand and conserving the water

for future generations. To trim down such issues, the conservation of water by various
alternatives is important.

   1.1  Water Conservation :

Water
conservation is important just because overall water available on earth is 71%
out of which 96.5% of water is sea water and 2% is in the form of ice caps.
Only 1% fresh water is available on earth. Also as the population increases
human are doing deforestation which results in reduced rainfall.

According to a 1997
report of the New Mexico office of the State Engineers, water conservation is
any action that reduces the amount of water withdrawn from water supply
sources, reduces consumptive use, reduces loss or waste of water, improves
efficiency of water use, increases recycling and reuse of water, or prevents
pollution of water. It also states that water conservation involves two distinct
areas, technical and human. The technical side includes collecting data from
water audits and installing water involves changing behaviours and expectations
about water use and the way things should be done.

Also
conserving water helps in conserving energy. The research shown that out of
total energy, 6.5% energy is used for transportation of water from corporation
storage to each user. Hence conserving the water at individual level will also
result in reducing light consumption resulting in minimum electricity bill.

The Water Conservation principles are focused on :
a) Any beneficial reduction in Water loss, Use & Waste of resources
b) Avoiding any damage to water quality
c) Improving water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial
use of water.2.0 Objective
:This
paper is focused on identifying and study the
water supply related problem and 
the water conservation opportunities in High – rised Housing in suburb
area of  Pune.                    With modernisation there is a
growing number of nuclear families, senior citizens to live alone, students or
interns living in dormitories or in shared accommodation during college and the
early working years. As Pune city is expanding its limits day by day and also
increasing the density rapidly. The peoples are fulfilling there problems by
asking for extra water supply with the help of water tanker. Hence the report
is focused on what are the various water conservation opportunities this
housing project can use to reduce water shortage problems by following :·  
                By deriving various water
conservation opportunities at all stages i.e. from site level to individual
people’s level, reducing the load on the municipal corporation water demand.·  
By evaluating the water
savings from various water conserving fixtures, advising the users the
importance and also pay back period               Evaluating the water
conservation percentages by Xeriscaping.

·  
               Deriving how the re – use of
water for various purposes to conserve the water.This
paper will not only serve the purpose of reducing the load on water requirement
but also will serve the various alternatives to conserve the water as well as
help to make people aware about the use of water as well as re – use of grey
water.3.0 : Need of Water Conservation in suburb areasRapid and unregulated
urbanization and outdated urban water management models impacts water quality
and quantity by jeopardizing the security and safety of our existing water
resources. Cities are overwhelmed with water-related challenges.In
the city like Pune, Residential development is rapidly growing up in the form
of housing instead of individual apartment. This growth is happening
surrounding areas of Pune city instead of core city, as there are no chances of
such kind of development within city. The speed of the growth is at such a
speed that municipal corporation is unable to complete the water requirement of
such housing areas. The housing scheme a growing vertically are also increasing
the density of area. Such housing areas are unable to get enough amount of
water from the municipal corporation which results in asking additional water
supply with the help of private water tankers. Hence
for such areas, it is necessary to conserve the water without disturbing the
present water demand and conserving the water for future generations. Water
conservation helps to save energy, protect wild animals, and prevent people
from using so much water that it cannot be replaced by Rain. To ensure
availability for future generation, the withdraw of fresh water from an
ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate.Water
conservation is necessity of today’s generations in every city, as the density
is increasing, it became essential to conserve the water and reduce the load on
municipal water supply.In
implementing water conservation principles there are number of key activities
that may be beneficial :-
a) Any beneficial reduction in Water loss, use & waste of resources,
b) Avoiding any damage to water quality,
c) Improving water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial
use of water.The
water conservation opportunities includes various activities  and those are divided at 3 different scales. 3.1.1 : SITE
SCALE :·   Planting
the native species for Landscaping which consumes less amount of water. i.e.
Xeriscaping.- Selecting
the native species for plantation which requires less water with compare to
other species. This reduces the water demand required for landscape purpose by
30 to 55%. Using
proper irrigation system and schedule to reduce evaporation losses – Use of
proper irrigation system also helps in reducing the water demand.Use of
sprinkler irrigation system reduces the water demand by 15 % than supplying the
water directly by pipe, whereas drip irrigation reduces the water demand by 27%
to 32% as compare to sprinkler system.The
sensors should be used with irrigation system so when there are chances of
Rainfall, the irrigation system will shut down automatically.·   Using “Rain water harvesting
– It
is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches
the aquifer.
Uses include water for garden, water for livestock,
water for irrigation,
and indoor heating for houses etc. In many places the water collected is just
redirected to a deep pit with percolation. Rainwater harvesting provides an independent water supply
during regional water restrictions and in developed countries is often used to supplement the main supply. It provides water
when there is a drought, can help mitigate flooding of low-lying areas, and
reduces demand on wells which may enable ground water levels to be sustained.
It also helps in the availability of potable water as rainwater is
substantially free of salinity and other salts. (Corporation)Sizing : Rainwater
harvesting systems can be installed with minimal skills. The system should be
sized to meet the water demand throughout the dry season since it must be big
enough to support daily water consumption. Specifically, the rainfall capturing
area such as a building roof must be large enough to maintain adequate flow.
The water
storage tank size should be large enough to contain the captured
water.The design of storage tank depends on factors which are listed below ·  
Number of persons in
the household.·  
Per capita
requirements.·  
Average annual
rainfall.·  
Rainfall pattern.·  
Type & size of
catchment area.The design of storage tank can be done
using following three approaches :

·  
Matching the capacity
of tank to the area of the roof.