Milk is the fluid secreted off mammary glands of female mammals. Milk from cows, goats, sheeps has been a use to mankind as a food since earliest times. Liquid milk and manufacturing milk has been categorised as two different types of milk. Milk used for direct human consumption or “drinking milk” is termed as liquid milk, whereas milk which is used for production of milk products such as cheese, milk powders etc, is termed as manufacturing milk. From British period until today, the Indian Dairy Industry has been in advancement stages. The nation contributes more than 13% of world’s aggregate milk creation and therefore is coined as world’s biggest milk maker making another contribution of 22% to agricultural GDP. Supply chain of Indian dairy Industry, functioning step wise from supply of inputs for dairying in the form of fodder to transport of final processed milk and milk products to various retail markets, outlets, and supermarkets from where they finally reach to the consumer end has been studied in detail in this project. The sanitary conditions at every stage, from production of raw milk to delivery of finished product to the consumer has also been studied.
It requires the udder efficiency to move the dairy products from thousand of cows to stores across the country. Traditionally, where the process was conducted manually, now-a-days dairy farmers, processors and distributers practice technology to automate tasks more efficiently. This mechanism not only simplify the work but also helps the farmers in the production of more and better products as well as continuously monitoring the health of their herds. RFID tags, sensors have been in use to detect the body temperature of the cows that would affect the production rate. A potent, efficacious supply chain is therefore a key to success in the dairy industry. Time, temperature, humidity, cost, distance, demand, forecasting, and packaging are all important considerations in developing a strong dairy supply chain. 2
Because of the growing demands and rising disposable incomes, the confines of Indian Dairy Industry in both organised and un-organised areas is expected to be double to around $140 billion by 2020. The Indian Dairy industry constitutes of 22 state milk federations, 12 million milk makers as a part of 110,000 dairy agreeable social orders. 3
Some Key Facts about Indian Dairy 3
It holds the first rank amongst World Milk production i.e; 115 million metric tons.
The current price/value of milk output from livestock is around INR 2400 Billion.
The dairy products market value is around INR 4000 Billion.
Through the retail chains only 5% of milk is sold.
Milk agents deliver 65-70% to the homes.
Annually, 24% growth is seen in carton or packaged milk.
Supply chain of Indian Dairy Industry 3
The inputs are supplied to the animals (buffalos and cattle) in the form of animal feed plant, fodder, vetenery aids for the dairying purpose.
On the daily basis, milk is taken out from the mulching animal by the dairy farmers (small scale, medium and large scale farmers).
Milking Techniques 6
Traditional milking by hand
Conventional milking systems
Automatic milking systems
3. Various milk cooperative societies (collection centres) collect the milk from dairy farmers. 10 million farmers of 80,000 villages are served by them. 7
4. The involvement of dairy cooperatives is in milk production, procurement, processing and marketing. 7 The cooperative societies collect the milk and send it to dairy plants where tasks like chilling of the milk, processing and packaging of milk and milk products and its transportation is carried out.
5. During the chilling process, the amount of bacterias are checked and any milk that fails is discarded. During the processing, the milk is homogenised and pasteurised. 2