Anti-hypertension containing inhibitors; particularly VPP and IPP reduce both

Anti-hypertension
properties of peptides returned to the mechanism of action of Angiotensin
Converting Enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin Converting Enzyme converts angiotensin I
to angiotensin II, which causes vasoconstriction and stimulating the secretion
of aldosterone by the adrenal glands 4, 5, 6. Inhibition of angiotensin
I-converting enzyme (ACE) is considered as a useful therapeutic approach in the
treatment of high blood pressure in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients 4,
7. Most of the milk-derived peptides have multiple functions are involved in
the production of bioactive substances 8, 5. Proteolysis leads to the
production of bioactive peptides which have positive effects on human health.
On the other hand for an activity of lactic acid bacteria, proteolysis is the
most important biochemical process occurring in sour milk products during
fermentation and storage 9. Improvements of ACE inhibitory activity during
fermentation depend on the degree of hydrolysis 10. Lactic acid bacteria
(LAB) are known specific in the production of ACE inhibitors during
fermentation. 11, 12.

      Sometimes a number of inhibitors are more
efficient with the enzymes such as trypsin, pepsin and carboxypeptidase A. Some
of these inhibitors show greater efficiency in vivo after the effect of
digestive enzymes on casein like dipeptide tyrosine – proline. Yogurt-like
products contain two tripeptides IPP (Isoleucine-Proline-Proline) and VPP
(Valine-Proline-Proline) which are resistant to gastric digestion while others
decrease in performance 13. There are numerous data in this field, including
consumption of products containing inhibitors; particularly VPP and IPP reduce both
systolic and diastolic blood pressure 14, 15. However, inhibitors in food are
not powerful as drugs used to treat high blood pressure, but also they have
mild activities that can be viewed as a natural functional food in the diet and
placed in the daily diet. Some oral ACE inhibitors are currently used as
clinical antihypertensive drugs such as captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril
16. Enalaprilat is the active antihypertensive drug, which is dosed as the
prodrug, enalapril. By chemical hydrolysis from the prodrug enalapril, the
absorption after oral intake will be improved 17.

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The aims of this study were to evaluate effects of sodium caseinate, M.piperita
extract and storage time on the viability of L. casei, ACE-inhibitory
activity and proteolysis. In addition, this study can be a starting point for
practical use of peppermint extract in dairy products in near future. As well,
it can be the effect on improving food health and safety in the society.