Awareness disorder of the neuro developmental type(1,2).It is characterised

Awareness about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among teenagers 

Type of manuscript: Survey article 

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Running title : awareness about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among teenagers.

Revathi.B
Undergraduate student

Saveetha Dental College, 
Saveetha university 

Mrs.Jothi Priya.A

Department of physiology 
Saveetha Dental College 
Saveetha university 
Chennai 
Tamil Nadu  
India 

Corresponding author

Student Email: [email protected]

Contact number : 9176789720

Author name : Revathi.B

Guide name :  Mrs.Jothi Priya.A 

Year of study : l-BDS :2017-2018

Abstract :

Aim: To create awareness and impart knowledge about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder .

Background and reason:
Since many people are affected by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder especially among teenagers this has to be treated.This disorder leads to impairment in modern society and affects concentration over a task. Hence awareness is necessary to protect the growing children and to impart knowledge especially among their parents.

Materials and methods:

It is the questionnaire based survey which was taken by 150 participants using the online link surveyPlanet. Participants were mostly adolescents who are under the age group of 12-19.

Introduction:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neuro developmental type(1,2).It is characterised by problems paying attention, excessive activity, which is not appropriate for person age.The symptoms appear before a person is twelve years old, are present for more than six months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such as school, home, or recreational activities)(3).In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance.Although it causes impairment, particularly in modern society, many children with ADHD have a good attention span for tasks they find interesting(6).
 
Symptoms of attention deficit disorder range from mild to severe and always interfere with normal development and daily functioning(4,5).A diagnosis of attention deficit disorder  typically requires that symptoms be present by the age of  12 and in more than one setting (such  as both home and school). Attention  deficit  disorder  may  persist  into adulthood ,  creating difficulties  in one’s  occupation or social relationship. While hyperactivity and impulsivity are not always present and in  symptoms, attention deficit disorder  is commonly referred to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(6,7).Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD.like many other illnesses ,a number of factors can contribute to ADHD ,such aa
1.Genes
2.Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, or drug use during pregnancy
3.Exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy
4.Exposure to environmental toxins, such as high levels of lead, at a young age
5.Low birth weight
6.Brain injuries
ADHD is more common in males than females, and females with ADHD are more likely to have problems primarily with inattention. Other conditions, such as learning disabilities, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and substance abuse, are common in people with ADHD.ADHD is a disorder involving a group of key skills known as executive function. Executive function impacts the ability to focus,organise, use working memory, and other executive skills(11).
ADHD is caused by differences in the development of brain anatomy and wiring. It often runs in families. Everyone has symptoms of ADHD at one time or another(12).But to be diagnosed with ADHD, kids must have far more difficulty with these problems than their peers. Kids with ADHD also have challenges in more than one area—for example, at school, at home and in friendships.It’s more common in boys than in girls. It’s usually discovered during the early school years, when a child begins to have problems paying attention(15,16)
Adults with ADHD may have trouble managing time, being organised, setting goals, and holding down a job(13,14). They may also have problems with relationships, self-esteem, and addiction.Some of the skills kids with ADHD often struggle with include:
• working memory 
• flexible thinking 
• managing emotions
• self regulation 
• organisation and planning
Most kids don’t totally outgrow ADHD, although some symptoms can lessen or disappear as they get older. Even so, there are treatments for ADHD that can help reduce symptoms. And there are supports at school that can make learning easier.

 DISCUSSION:
In the recent studies it’s been found that ADHD does not only affect children it even affects normal people and old people also.It focuses on a wide range of self-management functions linked to complex operations of the brain, and these are not limited to readily observable behaviours.Clinical data executes that the symptoms of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder varies from person to person. It depends upon the particular person’s interest and natural habits.Recent researches says that impairing symptoms of ADHD often persist well only in adulthood.Many times during childhood the symptoms are not well known. Some children with ADHD gradually outgrow their impairments as they get into during middle school or high school.The affected participants might experience impairments in both psychological and physiological aspects.

 From this survey it’s been analysed that teenagers are mostly suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.They were easily distracted and undergoes serious complications. Some main complications are inattention,hyperactivity and impulsivity.It is  the most common problem among college or school studying students. They could not concentrate on their daily works .finally it leads to outburst of temper and irritability along with refusal to comply with adults requests and rules. 

About  33.3% of participants are often having Difficulty in sustaining their attention while focusing during long lectures or while doing some other activities. Anxiety disorders may also arise due to this. It may leads to excessive worry and and difficulty controlling their worries. Person along with anxiety disorder may also experience physical symptoms like upset mind, stomach and head ache and increasing heartbeat.

About 45.6% of participants are easily distracted by external stimuli. This distraction leads to poor skills and difficulty in learning and communication problems which is significant. The demands of middle and high school place additional stress on teens and parents should remain aware of their children’s habits and activities.

 About 24% of them often lose , misplace or damage their things which is necessary.  It makes them irresponsible and leads to spoil their performances.

About 48.3% sometimes feel restless when they are got to do something. Sleep deprivation occurs in teens. Changes in sleep cycle are normal for all adolescents, as many teenagers expect to wake up late at night and sleep later at morning. This is common, but ADHD affected  individual might suffer more with sleep disorder and mood swings.

 About 33.8% of the teenagers leave their seats in situations when they are expected to remain in their seats. This is a common impairment of hyperactivity where the individual was not able to concentrate on a single work. 

About 43.9% of the participants find themselves sometimes talking excessively. They were not under control feeling restless . They easily express their emotions and react for everything. They also feel sorry for every small things and easily distracted. In studies, not all not people who are suspected to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are talking excessively. They are influenced easily by the external force. About 34.2% of participants are finding difficulty in organising an activity and having poor time management.

S.no

Questions

Response

Number

Percentage

1

how often do you have difficulty sustaining your attention while doing something for work,school,a hobby,or fun activity (eg.remaining focused during lectures,lengthy reading or conversations)

Never 
Sometimes 
Often
Rarely 


76 
50 
22

1.3
50.7
33.3 
14.7

2

How often are you easily distracted by external stimuli?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely

3
61
68
17

2
40.9
45.6
11.4

3

How often do you have difficulty waiting your turn,such as while waiting in line?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely

6
52
41
50

4
34.9
17.5
33.6

4

How often do you lose ,misplace or damage something that’s necessary in order to get things done(eg.your phone,eyeglasses,wallet,keys)?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often
Rarely 

22
45
36 
47

14.7
30
24
31.3

5

How often do you feel restless when you got to do something?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely 


72
43
25 


48.3
33.9
16.8

6

How often do you forget to do something you do all the time?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely 

14
51
29
54

9.5
34.5
19.6
36.5

7

How often do you leave your seat in situations when remaining seated is expected?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely

35
49
7
54

14.1
33.8
4.8
37.2

8

How often do you find yourself talking excessively?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often
Rarely 

14
65
43
26

9.5
43.9
29.1
17.6

9

How often do you fidget with or tap your hands or feet ,or squirm in your seat?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often
Rarely 

20
52
39
35

13.7
35.6
26.7
24

10

How often do you have difficulty in organising an activity or task needing to get done (eg.poor time management in managing sequential tasks)?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely 

23
50
27
46

15.8
34.2
18.5
31.5

RESULT:
Through this survey it’s proved that nearly 50% of the participants were not able to focus well in their daily activities or tasks.Many were under great pressure and impairment due to this disorder.
Healthy mind and good lifestyle changes might help them to get rid of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Reference:

1 Greenhill LL, Hechtman LI (2009). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In BJ Sadock et al., eds., Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 3560-3572. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 
2 National Institute of Mental Health (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (NIH Publication No. 08-3572). Available online: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/adhd_booklet.pdf. 
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