CHAPTER research methodology describes the research design, which was



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3.0 Introduction

Research methodology explain how the
research was conducted .It is an explanation of how and why a research is
carried out (Okafor, 1996). It provides a detailed account of the methods, to
be used in collecting the data, Why the choice of these methods what data to be
collected, how they would be gotten and analyzed (Baridan, 2001). The research
methodology describes the research design, which was used to accomplish the
objectives of the research. The issues covered in this section are the
population of the study, sample size determination, instrumentation, validity
and reliability of the research instrument and propose method of data analysis.


Research Design

Research designs are considered as the
blue print of any research dealing with at least four problems: which questions
to study, which data are relevant, what data to collect, and how to analyze the
results (Hair, Bush and Ortinau, 2000). According to Asika (1991), the best
design depends on the research question. Considering the research objectives of
the study and associated problems, this research takes the form of an Action Research Design. The essentials of action
research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an exploratory
stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans
are made for some form of interventionary strategy. Then the intervention is
carried out (the “action” in Action Research) during which time,
pertinent observations are collected in various forms. The new interventional
strategies are carried out, and this cyclic process repeats, continuing until a
sufficient understanding of (or a valid implementation solution for) the
problem is achieved. The protocol is iterative or cyclical in nature and is
intended to foster deeper understanding of a given situation, starting with
conceptualizing and particularizing the problem and moving through several
interventions and evaluations.


3.2 Population of Study

Population is the
totality of all subjects that conform to a set of specifications, comprising
the entire group of persons that is of interest to the researchers and to whom
the research results can be generalized (Asika, 2004). The population of this study will be three hundred and
thirteen thousand, three hundred and thirty three (313,333) persons, a figure
gotten from online (


3.3       Sampling

Sampling technique consist of the method
used to select a subset of population that really represents the whole
population (Saunder, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009).

In this research, simple random
techniques were used in selecting the sample because it permits all members of
the population an equal chance of being represented in the sample.

was selected because for the following reasons

It is an industrial area.

The popular computer village is located
there where mobile phones and other accessories are easily gotten.

It is a very fast developing urban

It is the capital of Lagos, the
commercial hub of Nigeria



Sample Size

Sample size determination is the act of choosing the
number of observations or replicates to include in a statistical sample. The sample size is an important
feature of any empirical study in which the goal is to make inferences about a
population from a sample.

sample size for this study was determined by using Yamane
(1967) formula which is stated as:

Where        n   
= sample size

    N    =  population

    e     =  level
of significance 

=  Constant




= 400 approximately 

the sample size for this study will be four hundred (400)


Instrument of data Collection

A research instrument is what the
researchers use to collect the information in a qualitative field of study or
observation. It helps to keep track of what the researchers observe and how to
report it (Asika, 2004).

The research instrument for this study will
be a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire as the survey instrument of
this study comprised of structured and unstructured questions. The questionnaire
included a cover letter that briefly introduced the researchers, the study, the
purpose of the research and provided an assurance of respondents’


questionnaire is a set of systematically structured questions used by a researcher
to get needed information from respondents. Questionnaires have been termed
differently, including surveys, schedules, indexes/indicators, profiles,
studies, opinionnaires, batteries, tests, checklists, scales, inventories,
forms, inter alia. They are

…any written instruments that present
respondents with a series of questions or statements to which they are to react
either by writing out their answers or selecting from among existing answers.
(Brown, 2001)


Questionnaire survey formed an important
aspect of collecting quantitative data with the use of a questionnaire. The
questionnaire served as the primary instrument used in this study.
Questionnaire as an instrument for data collection was chosen because it will
assist in eliciting objective and more precise responses to the research
questions outlined in the study


The six-point
Likert-scale questions range from “Strongly Agree” = 6, “Agree” =5, “Fairly
Agree” = 4, “Fairly Disagree” = 3, “Disagree” =2 and “Strongly Disagree” = 1
was used to reflect the level of agreement of the respondents to the questions.
Likert scales questions are widely used in most research in marketing and for
measuring attitudinal items according to Malhotra and Birks (2006). To elicit
the cooperation of the respondents, the nature and purpose of the research were
made known to the respondents and anonymity was assured.


3.6       Validity of Research Instrument

Validity is the
degree to which a research instrument measures what it is designed to measure
(Asika, 1991). Validity can be carried out using the content, criterion and
construct validity approach (Hair, Black, Bin, Anderson and Tatham, 2006). For
this study, content validity will be used. 
The content validity will be used in order to ensure that the measurement
procedures are relevant and representative of the constructs that was used in
this study. Content validity is a judgment evaluation of the content of the
scale. It requires that, the scale items be reviewed by experts in the field
(Malthota, 2004). To ensure content validity of the research instruments, the
researcher’s supervisor will made his inputs and judge the appropriateness of
the items in the instrument. He will ensure that the questionnaire meets the
objective of the research


3.7       Reliability
of the Research Instrument

A study is reliable when repeated instrument of the
same material results in similar decisions or conclusion; Wimmer and Dominick
(2003). The coherence, ability to elicit response, comprehensibility and
consistency of the questionnaire using a pre-test technique will be done.


3.8       Administration
of Research Instrument

questionnaire may be self-administered, posted or presented in an interview
format but for this study, the questionnaires will be self-administered.





3.9       Method
of Data Analysis

The data collected
will sort out into different categories of rows and columns, displaying facts
and figures using a frequency table. The data will be represented with a pie