Obesity allows the user to input their weight and

Obesity
has become major concern in public health in recent years. The use of the web
and smart phone application to assist with weight management is escalating
consistently. Mobile application and web applications for weight management are
seen to become very efficient for tweaking health outcomes in the adolescent
and adults as a whole, and are rated as cost-effective and climbable
interventions for fighting overweight and obesity. In recent years the demand
for weight loss applications has been on the rise and in that, its concerns
about the quality. The prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide is
predicted to exceed 1.12 billion and 573 million people, by 20301. The economic
cost of overweight and obesity globally are estimated to 2.8% of total health
care expenditure 2. Accordingly, efforts to curb overweight and obesity have
aimed to promote adherence to evidence-based recommendations for daily
exercise, healthy eating, and associated behavioral determinants of weight. 3

Weight
reduction is an effective way to lower risk of both premature mortality 4 and
chronic health conditions as diabetes 5 cancer 6 and cardiovascular
diseases 7.  Weight loss programs are
now one of the best refinery of treatment that equitably produce weight losses
of about 7%-10% of the original weight over 3 – 7 months. Although effective at
initiating weight losses, these programs are often intensive, include at least
14 in-person sessions led by trained interventionists, and cost approximately
US$1,800 per person in the first year 8, 9. This exclusively high cost limits
people across the globe as such, people search for alternative means to reduce
the cost and the same time very efficient weight loss programs.

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In
this paper we propose a description the appeal of using smart phone for weight
loss, propose a conceptual mobile application for weight loss, discuss its
common behavioral change techniques and features to be utilized. The application
is followed by laid down steps which every layman can get and it’s as follows:

1.    The
stage one: this stage allows the user to input their weight and height, the
reason being that the application by knowing your weight and height will know
which guideline will be suitable for the user.

2.    The second
stage: in this stage the application will ask the user for the weight they want
to have, or the application can calculate based on your initial weight and
height and give you the average wait one is supposed have at a particular
height.

3.    The
third stage: in this stage the application gives you guidelines to follow in
order to get weight reduced in a specific period.

4.    The fourth
stage: in this stage, the application keeps your records and one can input weight
losses over periods to get track of them.

5.    The
fifth stage: this stage is the last stage, it gives the user the opportunity to
rate and give recommendation in order to sharpen the application.

 

1.2 Problem Statement

            1.2.1 Rationale for Study

The
concern for overweight in individuals is something worth considering. As stated
in above topics, the percentage of deaths recorded globally due to overweight
is highly unacceptable. Many developers have realized this and attempts have
been made to help rectify the concern. However, most of the applications
developed by these developers tend out to help solve just few of the many areas
of this concern. Many only end up calculating for the weight needed to be lost
for users. This project focusses on calculating for weight needed to be lost
and as well suggests most effective ways to losing weight. This project when
accomplished can be used in various fields. It can be used both at home and at
work.

The
purpose for this web and mobile application is to help users manage their
weight with less cost since the actual cost of getting an interventionist is
extremely high and not so many people can afford. This project makes users
aware of their current weight, how much they are supposed to loose based on the
height information they have provided. Guidelines or basic workout routines and
foods to take in for weight loss will be given users to follow purposely for
gaining desired weight loss over a desired period of time. There will also be a
portion where recommendations will be taken from the users in order to improve
the web and mobile application.

1.3. Objectives

After
the end of this project, the points stated below is set to be achieved:

1.    To be
able to create a web and mobile application that helps users manage their
weight.

2.    To
characterize the addition of evidence based master plans and scientific
deductions of the web and mobile application for weight management.

3.    To be
able to help users keep track of their weight gain and loss sequence overtime
for future use and references.

4.    To
make a user friendly web and mobile application that can be used globally.

5.    To be
able to enhance my skills and knowledge in web and mobile application
development.

1.4 Scope of the Study

This
study is for all people who are interested in managing their weight. This study
will help people from all range of age to get their desires met pertaining to
weight loss and management. This can also in various means help the health
sector or private health practitioners keep track of their patient’s weight
records.

 

 

 

 

 

1.5 Limitations of the Study

Even
though explicit work has been done to achieving an amazing application, however,
the following contributing factors have been inevitable as a result of their
crucial constraints and limiting factors of the study:

1.    This
study is limited to those who have smart phones and can access the internet and
those who have other means of getting access to the internet, for example
through laptops and desktops.

2.    Even
though a lot of solutions have been put on the page, not every one of them will
be suitable for all users.

3.    Some
of the guidelines require a person to go to the gym or buy some workout equipment
to work with which obviously will cause cost incurring. Accessing the internet
in order to use the application might also incur some costs whether little or a
lot.

4.    Some
of the guidelines are very extreme based on the weight you carry and might not
be suitable for certain group of people, for example, the aged people.

5.    The
study might not necessarily favor the physically challenged people especially
the blind.

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.    This
study is greatly an advantage to the entire population across the globe,
especially the youth and those without any physical challenge(s).

2.    This project
is aimed to minimize the rate of overweight population across the world.

3.    This
study helps one to keep track of their weight records for future use or
reference.

4.    It
also aims at helping people who do not have the financial power to afford
interventionist.

5.    This
study is helpful in the case where one does not want to visit a dietician, they
can get all their guidelines to help them just as a dietician will give.

6.    The
study can help precisely manage a person’s weight due to the information given
by the person.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Obesity
remains a significant public health issue across the USA as well as worldwide.
10, 11 Reducing body weight is an effective way to reduce risk of both
premature mortality 4 and chronic health conditions such as diabetes, 5
cardiovascular disease, 6 and cancer. 7 Behavioral weight loss programs are
one modality of treatment that can successfully produce weight losses of
approximately 8%–10% of initial body weight over a 4–6-month period of time 12.
Although effective at initiating weight losses, these programs are often
intensive, include at least 14 in-person sessions led by trained
interventionists, and cost approximately US$1,800 per person in the first year.13,14
This high cost limits the ability to scale across a population level and as
such, alternative delivery methods are necessary to reduce costs and

Clinical
interventions for obesity have demonstrated variable efficacy, which has been
primarily attributed to fluctuations in treatment adherence over time 15, 16.
Clinical interventions employ evidence-based strategies primarily based on
behavior change theory to drive permanent lifestyle modifications necessary for
long-term weight control 17. These strategies include self-monitoring,
goal-setting, healthy eating training, increasing physical activity, providing
personalized and objective feedback, stress reduction, and problem solving 18.
Clinical interventions for obesity are rigorous and typically require
face-to-face contact often for over a year 19. These programs can be time,
cost, and resource intensive, and often inconvenient for patients to attend,
limiting long-term treatment adherence and weight maintenance 18, 19. Novel,
low-cost, and widely accessible tools are needed to support the practice of
evidence-based strategies for weight control 20, in particular when patients
face substantial difficulties to accessing good treatments. Increase reach of
efficient weight loss programs.

Over
the past years, smartphones have gained increased attention, within both
research and industry, as a potential avenue to deliver or address the
limitations of methods used in traditional weight loss programs 21.
Smartphone use has skyrocketed, and consumer downloads of health-related
applications (apps) are at an all-time high 22, 23. Yet, empirical evidence
for smartphone use and the optimal features necessary to effectively support a
weight loss intervention is just starting to emerge 24,25.

An
electronic search was conducted between July 2014 and July 2015 of the official
app stores for four major mobile operating systems. Three raters independently
identified apps with a stated goal of weight loss/management, as well as weight
loss/management apps targeted to pediatric users. All discrepancies regarding
selection were resolved through discussion with a fourth rater. Metadata from
all included apps were abstracted into a standard assessment criteria form and
the evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific
evaluation of included apps was assessed. Evidence-based strategies included:
self-monitoring, goal-setting, physical activity support, healthy eating
support, weight and/or health assessment, personalized feedback, motivational strategies,
and social support 26

A
total of 393 apps were included in this review. Self-monitoring was most common
(139/393, 35.3%), followed by physical activity support (108/393, 27.5%),
weight assessment (100/393, 25.4%), healthy eating support (91/393, 23.2%),
goal-setting (84/393, 21.4%), motivational strategies (28/393, 7.1%), social
support (21/393, 5.3%), and personalized feedback (7/393, 1.8%). Of apps, 0.8%
(3/393) underwent scientific evaluation and 0.3% (1/393) reported health care
expert involvement. No apps were comprehensive in the assessment criteria, with
the majority of apps meeting less than two criteria 26.

Health
researchers have started to develop and test their own mobile apps for weight
management, with the objective to create new clinical and research tools that
incorporate evidence-based strategies used in the treatment of obesity. A
review of behavior change techniques in 12 primary trials and five secondary analyses
examining mobile device interventions for weight loss found that interventions
contained a minimum of five techniques, the most common of which were
self-monitoring, goal-setting, tailored feedback, general health information,
encouragement, prompting practice, and social support 27. Mobile device
interventions with multiple techniques that differentiated it meaningfully from
the comparison treatment were associated with superior weight and health
behavior outcomes 27.

The
advantages smartphones hold over standard face-to-face programs have led to a
surge of pilot studies examining the potential use of this technology for
weight loss. However, small sample sizes, short follow-up periods, and the lack
of intent-to-treat analyses make it difficult to make any strong conclusions.
The studies completed to date help to provide insight on the potential of
smartphone apps. Yet, specific treatment effects are difficult to decipher due
to the differing app features, frequency of interventionist contact, and the
varying levels of other included intervention components. A recent review on
mobile phone interventions to increase physical activity and weight loss 28.
These technologies are well-accepted by participants; however, more empirical
evidence is needed in order to fully evaluate the efficacy of this technology
on weight loss 28. Many of the studies published to date demonstrate the
promise that smartphones and apps have for improving program adherence and
producing clinically meaningful weight losses at a small cost; however, many
gaps remain in the field before the full potential of smartphone use for weight
loss can be evaluated. Intervention components that are now standard in
traditional weight loss programs need further investigation when delivered as a
feature on a smartphone. While greater adherence has been observed in
technology-supported interventions, it is still unclear as to whether increased
adherence translates to greater weight loss, more sustained engagement, or
long-term maintenance. Apps show promise in the ability to scale on a
population level, but a critical challenge is determining how to design an
appealing app that will not only be downloaded, but will also maintain user’s
engagement over time. In order to maintain engagement, an app must be
enjoyable, have perceived value, and not be too burdensome. Further, engagement
with the app should result in successful

However,
studies that have explored commercial app markets have found that mobile apps
for weight loss typically incorporate only a minority of the evidence-based
strategies used in the treatment of obesity 19. It is likely that the lack of
evidence-based features limits the effectiveness of these tools, which is
concerning given the abundance and availability of such tools for assisting
with the general public’s weight management needs 27.

Based
on the above flaws, my project has well incorporated strategies mapped and well
supported by the public health systems, and the system being used is based on
evidence and series of researches carried out to attain the best result.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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