p.p1 human trafficking (ARPA Canada, 2017). The act enables

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Human trafficking is an intolerable and ongoing issue present in Canadian society, and represents a serious concern for the government, and law enforcement. According to Oxford Dictionary, Human Trafficking is defined as, “The action or practice of illegally transporting people from one country or area to another, typically for the purposes of forced labour or sexual exploitation” (Oxford University Press, 2017). The Canadian government takes strict action towards human trafficking, enacting legislation, methods, and programs to detect, and convict those committing such crimes, and in order to assist, and compensate victims. The implementation and enactment of legislation ensures the protection of individual’s rights. Furthermore, the organization of government action plans assist to detect the presence of human trafficking crimes. Moreover, compensation and support programs administrated by the Canadian government assist in the recovery of victims. In and of itself, the Canadian government takes strict action against human trafficking through the implementation of legislation, the organization of various action plans, and the support and compensation provided to victims. 
The implementation and enactment of legislation ensures the protection of individual’s rights. Ontario’s Bill 96, the Anti-Human Trafficking Act, was passed by the Minister of Status of Women, Indira Naidoo-Harris (ARPA Canada, 2017). The bill makes effective changes to Ontario law. Bill 96 increases protection for survivors of human trafficking, creating a tort of human trafficking (ARPA Canada, 2017). The act enables people affected by human trafficking to apply for a restraining order to protect themselves from traffickers. It also makes it possible for survivors to sue their traffickers for compensation through civil court, in order to help survivors restore and rebuild their lives (Legislative Assembly of Ontario, 2017). On the federal level, the federal government passed Bill C-36, the Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act in 2014. The Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, Jody Wilson-Raybould introduced legislation to bring into force, a former Private Member’s Bill C-452 that amends the Criminal Code. The proposed legislation would help prosecutors prove that the accused exercised control or influence over the movements of a victim by proving that the accused lived with or was habitually in the company of the victim. This would make the offence easier to prove and would reduce the likelihood that victims of trafficking would have to testify in court (Department of Justice Canada, 2017). Also, the protection of immigrants and refugees from human trafficking crimes is of utmost importance as well, therefore Parliament enacted the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA Canada, 2017). Section 118 of this law, which took effect in 2002, provides that: No person shall knowingly organize the coming into Canada of one or more persons by means of abduction, fraud, deception or use or threat of force or coercion. For the purpose of subsection (1), “organize,” with respect to persons, includes their recruitment or transportation and, after their entry into Canada, the receipt or harbouring of those persons (Parliament of Canada, 2006). Human Traffickers prey on the most vulnerable including immigrants and refugees, and ensuring their safety and protection is an important aspect of the government’s fight towards effective change. These bills and acts, combined with the Ontario government’s announcement to invest $72 million in a plan to fight human trafficking, and the appointment of an Anti-Human Trafficking Director, (Department of Justice Canada, 2017) are steps in the right direction to change the prominence of human trafficking crimes in Canada. 
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Criminal Code of Canada are forms of legislation that guarantee the rights and freedoms of all Canadians, and implement laws associated with all types of crime, and the punishments for such actions. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice. It is also stated, that everyone has the right not to be subjected to any cruel and unusual treatment or punishment (Government of Canada, 2017). Both of these excerpts are violated by the practice of human trafficking. The victims of human trafficking are subjected to violence and abuse both physically and psychologically. Under command of a human trafficker, the victims are stripped of their freedom and lack security or protection. They are essentially deprived of their basic human rights, which is a direct violation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. This direct violation can be used in court, making it easier for victims of human trafficking to seek justice. Moreover, under the Criminal Code of Canada a number of laws exist to combat and prevent trafficking in persons, outlining the penalties one may face if convicted of human trafficking. In terms of criminal law, sections 279.01 to 279.04 of the Criminal Code specifically target trafficking in persons. These provisions essentially outline three prohibitions. The first contains the global prohibition on trafficking in persons, defined as the recruitment, transport, transfer, receipt, concealment or harbouring of a person, or the exercise of control, direction or influence over the movements of a person, for the purpose of exploitation (Parliament of Canada, 2013). In Section 279.01 it states, Trafficking in Persons carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment and a mandatory minimum penalty of 5 years, where the offence involved kidnapping, aggravated assault, aggravated sexual assault or death, and a maximum penalty of 14 years and a mandatory minimum penalty of 4 years in all other cases. Section 279.01 states, Trafficking of a person under the age of eighteen years which carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment and a mandatory minimum penalty of 6 years where the offence involved kidnapping, aggravated assault, aggravated sexual assault or death, and a maximum penalty of 14 years and a mandatory minimum penalty of 5 years in all other cases (Parliament of Canada, 2013).

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