Study strains The phenomenon of thawing and freezing affect

Study
of seasonal variation effect on the pavement structure is extremely important
during the construction process. The information on seasonal variation in
freeze state in unbound base, sub base and subgrade can be used to better
understand the effect of seasonal variation in load carrying capacity of the
pavement and as a whole in pavement performance. Frost  occurs especially in a cold region. In
freezing season water gets frozen and gets trapped inside the soil layer. In
spring top frozen layer  undergoes
thawing while the bottom layer is still frozen, due to this pavement layers
experience high strains The phenomenon of thawing and freezing affect  the bearing capacity of soil and consequently
degrades the pavement structure. To protect pavement from this deterioration
Spring Load Restrictions (SLR) is applied. Determination of application and
lifting time . This report include the regression analysis to establish  a relationship for frost penetration depth
using  Electrical Resistivity parameters
and Temperature of soil.Unites States is a country experiencing
varying amount soil freezing in various part of country. Compared to others  those  part of country experiencing freezing weather
condition  requires a detail study of the
frost penetration during construction of pavement structures. In Washington
D.C. alone 39 counties can be expected to experience frost related pavement
damage each year. 3

Knowledge of frost penetration is critical in
design, operation and management of pavement structures. It causes the seasonal
changes in the bearing capacity of soil. In winter water trapped inside the
crack or soil void freezes and keeps the soil particle intact making it stiff .
The same frozen water undergoes thawing in spring, taking away the soil
particles which reduces the interactive force between the soil particles and ultimately reducing the strength of soil. A
frost heave distress on a roadway is caused by the upward movement of the
pavement resulting from expansion of trapped water beneath the roadway. A
significant heave can result in permanent damage of deformations and cracking
with varying severities. These distresses can greatly affect the ride quality
and leave motorists with an uncomfortable and unsafe ride. The
presence of highly frost susceptible materials and improper drainage are key
contributors to frost heaves, but other conditions such as  the  existing terrain and constructed cut-to fill transitions
can also lead to potential frost heaves problems 8.

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Another mechanical process that can occur in
soil due to frost is the volumetric change. Due to unequal temperature at the
surface of the pavement and below the pavement, differential settlement occurs
which hampers the sustainability of the pavement structures. Due to this,
breaking of the pavement surface occurs which leads to difficulty in
maintenance of the pavement surface.

Army Corps Of Civil Engineer devised a  concept 
for the pavement surface undergoing thawing and freezing. One of the
concept is the control of surface deformation       resulting from frost action. Second is
provision of          adequate  bearing capacity during most critical time
period. From a traffic engineer point of view proper structural calculation is
a must for pavement design. To counteract the effect of frost penetration there
should be proper provision for drainage and appropriate thickness for pavement.
Use of  large sized granular soil
particles called “rock cap” is considered good for proper drainage system in
pavement.