The organization justice theory explains the recognition
and beliefs of organizational citizenship behaviors, organizational commitment,
job satisfaction, and job performance (Charash & Spector, 2001). The three
components of the organizational justice theory are procedural, distributive,
and interactional (Cropanzano, Bowen, & Gilliland, 2007). Each component
has a different effect on employees and the perception of justice within an
organization. The three components of the justice theory help determine
commitment to the organization, satisfaction with the job, and performance of
the job (Charash & Spector, 2001). Procedural justice is the formal
allocation of processes. Distributive justice explains the distribution of work
among employees and the appropriateness of the outcomes. Interactional justice
explains how employees are treated by the organizational leaders. The problem
with procedural justice is an employee’s views of the fairness an organization
has with procedures. When a downsizing occurs, employees feels a change in the
methods and procedures related to completes a job task (Beylerian and Kleiner, 2003).
If employees begin to think they are suffering from unfair decision-making they
may develop negative attitude. Organizational leaders must maintain communication
with the employees to avoid voluntary turnover during a downsizing, by making sure
their work load remain balanced (Hopkins and Weathington, 2006).
The concern with distributive justice is the fairness in the
workload. As the downsizing occurs in an organization, many employees begin to
leave. It increases workload on remaining employees as they have to take additional
responsibilities and also has to maintain current duties. If one employees receive
more work than another employees they begin to form negative perceptions of distributive.
Organizational leaders should make sure to keep the work distribution is equal among
employees as it would help to keep a positive attitude with the remaining employees.
Interaction justice helps describe how the immediate
supervisor of an employee influences organizational justice perceptions more
than any other leadership level. Interactional justice is has two features informational
justice and interpersonal justice. Interpersonal justice refers to the dignity,
respect, and sensitivity employees receive from the immediate supervisor.
Informational justice refers to the knowledge and explanations employees
receive from the supervisor/leaders about the changes and procedures (Wu,
Neubert, and Xiang, 2007).